The 123 agreement is widely recognized as the gold standard for trade of nuclear technology. Originally formulated in the 1950s, the agreement aims to promote peaceful nuclear cooperation between participating countries while guarding against the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
The 123 agreement is a bilateral agreement between the United States and other countries seeking to obtain nuclear technology. The name “123” comes from the three criteria that must be met for the agreement to be approved: peaceful use of nuclear technology, nonproliferation, and cooperation between the countries.
The agreement outlines various aspects of nuclear trade, including the transfer of technology, materials, and equipment related to nuclear power and research. The agreement also establishes a framework for the exchange of information, training programs, and technical assistance between the participating countries.
One of the key features of the 123 agreement is the requirement for participating countries to meet certain nonproliferation standards. These standards include adherence to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, which requires countries to pledge not to develop or acquire nuclear weapons, and the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Additional Protocol, which provides for more extensive monitoring of nuclear activities.
The 123 agreement also includes provisions for the termination of nuclear trade in the event of a breach of the agreement by either party. These provisions help to ensure that nuclear technology remains in the hands of responsible actors and that the risk of nuclear proliferation is minimized.
Overall, the 123 agreement has been widely successful in promoting peaceful nuclear cooperation between participating countries while guarding against the proliferation of nuclear weapons. As such, it is considered the gold standard for trade of nuclear technology and remains an important tool for promoting international security in the 21st century.